Voltaire (1694-1778) Voltaire was the pseudonym used by the renowned French enlightenment philosopher and historian François-Marie Arouet. Famously outspoken on his attacks on the Catholic Church, he used his numerous plays and essays to advocate for religious toleration, freedom of expression and the separation of the church and state. He used satire in a way in which to attack the established institutions in France and provide a general criticism of the intolerant attitudes of his day.
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